Kepulauan Seribu[Thousand Island] is located in Java Sea and Jakarta Bay, it is an area with characteristic and natural potential that is different with other parts of Jakarta Capital City, because this area is basically a cluster of formed coral islands and shaped by coral biota and other associated biota (algae, malusho, foraminifera, and others) with the help of dynamic natural process.
According to those characteristics and Jakarta Capital city’s regulations on development, the expansion of Kepulauan Seribu is especially targeted to (a) increase travel activities; (b) improve fishermen’s quality of life through increase in marine cultivation; and (c) utilise fishery resources with the conservation of coral and mangrove ecosystems.
The distribution of Regional Development, where Kepulauan Seribu is one of the regional developments, are under Regional Regulation No. 6/1999 regarding Plans for Regional Spatial (Community or Neighbourhood Unit) of Jakarta Capital City. The distributions are based on physical characteristics and developments of respective regions with the following details:
1. Developments of North Region, consist of Regional Developments of Kepulauan Seribu and East Coast.
2. Developments of Central Region, consist of Regional Developments of Central, West Central and East Central.
3. Developments of South Region, consist of Regional Developments of South-North and South-South.
As mentioned before, one of the targets of Kepulauan Seribu developments is to increase tourist activities. However, to the regional government and local communities, tourist activities have yet to bring any contributions, such as, fishery, mining, and seat transportation that in fact, damage the environment. For instance, they catch fish by utilising poison or even bombs that damage the sea environment and coral reefs.
Lack of transportation and telecommunication facilities has made Kepulauan seribu to be ‘isolated’ from the other regions in Jakarta Capital City. Furthermore, low level of education and economy, lack of infrastructure, along with uneven population distribution has created obstacles in increasing its citizens’ welfare. As a result, all the villages in Kepulauan Seribu are categorised as undeveloped villages.
In order to boost the developments of Kepulauan Seribu in all aspects, amongst others, environmental sustainability, conservation of natural resources, economy, socio-culture, and community welfare, then Kepulauan Seribu sub-district that is part of East Jakarta Municipal, has to increase its status to Administrative District. This stipulation is under Regulation No. 34/ 1999 dated on 31 August regarding the Governance of Regional Provinces of Jakarta Capital City. The upgrade of status to Administrative District is followed with expansions of subdistricts from one to two subdistricts, four villages to six villages, and as capital of regency as determined by P. Pramuka. On the other hand, regarding Spatial Planning, the Plans for Regional Spatial (Community or Neighbourhood Unit) of Kepulauan Seribu, are referring to Community or Neighbourhood Unit of Jakarta Capital City.
Administratively Kepulauan Seribu is the area of 869 Ha, which is divided into two sub-districts and 110 islands. Details of the sub-districts and villages are as follow:
1. Subdistrict of West Kepulauan Seribu (consists of 79 islands) is the area of 569.29 ha. Pulau Kelapa village is the area of 258.41 ha.
- Pulau Harapan island, 244.72 ha.
- Pulau Panggang island, 62.10 ha.
2. Subdistrict of South Kepulauan Seribu (consists of 31 islands) is the area of 304.32 ha. Pulau Tidung village is the area of 106.90 ha.
Pulau Pari island, 94.57 ha.
- Pulau Untung Java village, 102.85 ha.
Kepulauan Seribu is an islands region that consists of clusters of coral islands that are in the North side or in Jakarta Bay. Amongst the clusters of Kepulauan Seribu are P. Kahyangan, P. Bidadari, P. Onrust, P. Edam, P. Kelor, P. Rambut, P. Pantara Timur, P. Pantara Barat, P. Subaru, P. Untung Jawa, Gugusan P. Kelapa, P. Ubi Kecil, P. Parung Indah, Kelurahan P. Panggang, P. Pari, P. Saktu, P. Penike, P. Pelangi, P. Puteri, P. Pabelokan, P. Laki, P. Pamagaran, P. Melinjo, P. Sabira, P. Matahari, P. Papa Theo, and P. Ayer. Not all of the islands are part of Kepulauan Seribu are inhabited. Majority of them are uninhabited.
The name is Kepulauan Seribu [Thousand Islands], but it doesn’t mean that the total number of islands within the clusters is a thousand. There are approximately 342 islands in total, including sand islands, including vegetated and non-vegetated coral reefs. The total number of those sand islands and coral reefs are approximately 158. The land in the islands of Kepulauan Seribu consists of alluvial soil, which is not much different with the land in north side of Jakarta Bay. This is due to sedimentation, in the form of mudflows that are carried by rivers that are flowing to the sea. The formation of islands in Kepulauan Seribu took place because of growth in reef animals (corallinacene), as a result, all the coasts of those islands are reef islands.
The fauna in Kepulauan Seribu can be explained into two parts, which are fauna that lives on the islands and those that live in the sea. Dominant flora that can be found on the islands is Coconut trees, Nyamplung (Dragoon wood and Mangroves). Furthermore, there are also crop plants and fruits that are in shrubs. It is an island with dense trees with many variations, such as, Bokor and Rambut trees.
Generally, the fresh water in the islands of Kepulauan Seribu has high content of saline (NaCl) (salty water), as a result the water is not drinkable. However, there are a number of islands that have fresh water, such as, P. Tidung, P. Elang, P. Kelapa, P. Putri, P. Air Besar, and P. Karya. The quality of the water is deemed passable, but the taste is still quite bitter. The economic activities of Kepulauan Seribu citizens can be divided into three categories, which are: Fishery, agriculture, and plantation, and trading industry.
The clusters of Kepulauan Seribu have huge potentials to develop various kinds of industries, such as, mining, fishery, and the most prominent one is the tourist industry. However, in order to preserve environmental sustainability and ecology balance, the government has divided he cluster of islands into three zones. The first zone is for the purpose to exploit natural resources. The natural resources can be extracted and fully utilised for interests of the industries. For instance, dead coral reefs are utilised for the terrazzo industry or others. The second zone is special islands that are provided for national parks or for the purpose of nature tourism. The third zone is determined as nature reserves that are protected. The most prominent thing, at the moment, is its utilisation for tourism destination.